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  • Japan (Head Office)
  • North America
  • Latin America &
    the Caribbean
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Middle East
  • Central Asia
  • East Asia
  • Asia & Oceania

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Central Asia

Mitsubishi Corporation

Malaysian Experimental Project in Tropical Forest Regeneration

50 hectares of land have been transformed into vigorous forest

Hard work by many dedicated people has resulted in the planting of 300,000 trees

The site chosen for the project is located in Malaysia's Sarawak State. The first priority was to gather seeds, especially those of the Dipterocarpaceae trees, that would become the primary timber of the forest. Because Dipterocarpaceae trees can reach over 50 meters, it was necessary to look for the blossoms with binoculars.

After a period of four months, which was the estimated time required for the fruit to mature, the workers returned to pick up the fallen seeds, gathering over 200,000 seeds in the first year. The next stage was to grow the seedlings in pots. Over the next four years, over 300,000 seedlings of 92 species were cultivated. In March 1991, a trial planting was begun in the first planting area and consisted mainly of potted seedlings that had grown to 30 to 50 centimeters in height in the six to eight months since germination.

The first tree planting ceremony was held on July 15 and was attended by some 1,200 people. Working together, participants were able to plant approximately 6,000 young trees. The area around each tree was mulched with withered oil palm leaves and cut grass to protect the trees from the harsh sun.

  • (1) The first planting area before planting (June 1990)
    (1) The first planting area before planting (June 1990)
  • (2) The first planting area (January1996)
    (2) The first planting area (January1996)
  • (3) Forest growth in the first planting area (February 1999)
    (3) Forest growth in the first planting area (February 1999)

Trees planted in the first planting area are over 12 to 13 meters high today

In commercial forestry, young trees of the same species are normally planted at a rate of about 1,000 per hectare. The Miyawaki method calls for the high-density planting of various species of young trees - between 20,000 and 30,000 per hectare. With this intensive mixed planting approach, the trees grow by competing for limited space. For the first two or three years the area is monitored and weeded, and any dead trees are replaced. The trees are then left to grow without further human intervention.

In tropical forests, tall trees measuring 50 meters are surrounded by mixed clusters of about 1,500 smaller trees. Forest development depends on the growth of the dominant trees. If they are healthy, their followers will also grow well.
In tropical forests, tall trees measuring 50 meters are surrounded by mixed clusters of about 1,500 smaller trees. Forest development depends on the growth of the dominant trees. If they are healthy, their followers will also grow well.

NOTE:To date, a total of 300,000 trees have been planted through this project. Vegetation consists of tree and emergent trees of 20 genera and 92 species, mostly Dipterocarpaceae (see Table). Growth analysis results show that the initial pace of growth is extremely fast when compared with forests in temperate regions. The planting area received annual rainfall in excess of 3,500 millimeters and has an annual average temperature of about 28 degrees Celsius. Under these conditions, soil nutrient levels are likely to be about one-half the levels in Japan. Tropical plants have small root systems, with organic stock primarily contained in the upper vegetative layer.

A list of planted trees for reforestation in Malaysia
No. Species Name        
1 Shorea atrinervosa 18 Shorea parvifolia 35 Cotylelobium malayanum
2 Shorea balanocarpoides 19 Shorea puauciflora 36 Cotylelobium melanoxylon
3 Shorea beccariana 20 Shorea rubella 37 Upuna borneensis
4 Shorea brunnescens 21 Shorea scaberrima 38 Vatica cuspidata
5 Shorea crassa 22 Shorea scabrida 39 Vatica mangachapoi
6 Shorea dasyphylla 23 Shorea venutosa 40 Vatica nitens
7 Shorea domatiosa 24 Hopea beccariana 41 Vatica venulosa
8 Shorea gibbosa 25 Hopea bracteata 42 Dracontomelon dao
9 Shorea glaucescens 26 Hopea kerangasensis 43 Gluta wallichii
10 Shorea laxa 27 Hopea pentanervia 44 Mangifera pajang
11 Shorea leprosula 28 Parashorea parvifolia 45 Parishia insignis
12 Shorea macrophylla 29 Parashorea smythiesii 46 Parishia maingayi
13 Shorea macroptera 30 Dryobalanops aromatica 47 Pentaspadon motleyi
14 Shorea maxwelliana 31 Dryobalanops beccarii 48 Neouvaria acuminatissima
15 Shorea mecistopteryx 32 Dipterocarpus rigidus 49 Alstonia angustifolia
16 Shorea multiflora 33 Dipterocarpus stellatus 50 Alstonia angustiloba
17 Shorea ovata 34 Cotylelobium burckii    

A list of planted trees for reforestation in Malaysia

  1. Shorea atrinervosa
  2. Shorea balanocarpoides
  3. Shorea beccariana
  4. Shorea brunnescens
  5. Shorea crassa
  6. Shorea dasyphylla
  7. Shorea domatiosa
  8. Shorea gibbosa
  9. Shorea glaucescens
  10. Shorea laxa
  11. Shorea leprosula
  12. Shorea macrophylla
  13. Shorea macroptera
  14. Shorea maxwelliana
  15. Shorea mecistopteryx
  16. Shorea multiflora
  17. Shorea ovata
  18. Shorea parvifolia
  19. Shorea puauciflora
  20. Shorea rubella
  21. Shorea scaberrima
  22. Shorea scabrida
  23. Shorea venutosa
  24. Hopea beccariana
  25. Hopea bracteata
  26. Hopea kerangasensis
  27. Hopea pentanervia
  28. Parashorea parvifolia
  29. Parashorea smythiesii
  30. Dryobalanops aromatica
  31. Dryobalanops beccarii
  32. Dipterocarpus rigidus
  33. Dipterocarpus stellatus
  34. Cotylelobium burckii
  35. Cotylelobium malayanum
  36. Cotylelobium melanoxylon
  37. Upuna borneensis
  38. Vatica cuspidata
  39. Vatica mangachapoi
  40. Vatica nitens
  41. Vatica venulosa
  42. Dracontomelon dao
  43. Gluta wallichii
  44. Mangifera pajang
  45. Parishia insignis
  46. Parishia maingayi
  47. Pentaspadon motleyi
  48. Neouvaria acuminatissima
  49. Alstonia angustifolia
  50. Alstonia angustiloba
Fig.1 Height of Planted Trees Fig.2 Compatison of Reforestation Volumes in Malaysia
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